FAA proposes a CO2 metric for a greener aviation

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Globe has been seeking CO2 solution

Though EASA tried to usurp, ICAO set the standard

FAA/EPA establish Fuel Effiency Metric

For more than a decade, the world has been assiduously seeking solutions for greenhouse gases a/k/a CO2. The European Union Safety Agency, the European Parliament, Commission and Union have been aggressive advocates for some “cure” with heavy emphasis on reducing aviation’s emissions . Fortunately, ICAO maintained its rightful leadership in designing a global aviation CO2 standard.

The first phase focused on the development of the CO2 certification requirement –(a CO2 metric, test procedures, and measurement methodology). The second phase focused on the development of the CO2 standard itself (establishing regulatory limits, applicability, and assessments of cost effectiveness). The principles and key criteria that guided the process included the concepts that:

 —No certification requirement compromise aircraft safety;

—Airplane CO2 emissions be reduced through the integration of fuel efficient technologies in airplane type designs;

—Airplanes that incorporate differing generations of CO2 reduction technologies be treated fairly and equitably;

—Any standard be independent of airplane size, purpose or utilization;

—The metric be robust and minimize unintended airplane and system design consequences;

—Any standard should use industry standard practices of measurement and correction;

And

 —The implementation of any standard reflects a manageable and appropriate level of resources to be expended by national airworthiness authorities and manufacturers.

CAEP historyThe UN agency is known for gestating  consensus for international rules for all aviation. A concomitant of ICAO’s deliberative normCAEP text is the consumption of time to reach criteria, which all of its Members can agree to and which all of the countries can agree .

Though on occasions, the US has adhered to the ICAO resolutions. To meet this obligation, on January 11, 2021, the EPA published a final rule adopting new domestic airplane greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards in new 40 CFR part 1030. On June 15,2022, the FAA issued an NPRM titled Airplane Fuel Efficiency Certification. The technical document which defines several measure which are used to create a Fuel Efficiency Regulatory Limit (§ 38.17) which will be applied to aircraft on the following schedule

 

  1. subsonic jet airplane

type-certificated maximum passenger seating capacity of 20 seats or more,

and

 maximum takeoff mass (MTOM) greater than 5,700 kg,

and

An application for original type certification that is submitted on or after January 11, 2021,

or

type-certificated maximum passenger seating capacity of 19 seats or fewer,

and

 MTOM greater than 60,000 kg,

 and

 An application for original type certification that is submitted on or after January 11, 2021.

  1. subsonic jet airplane

type-certificated maximum passenger seating capacity of 19 seats or fewer, (ii) A MTOM greater than 5,700 kg, but not greater than 60,000 kg,

and

application for original type certification that is submitted on or after January 1, 2023.

  1. propeller-driven airplane

 MTOM greater than 8,618 kg,

 and

 An application for original type certification that is submitted on or after January 11, 2021.

  1. subsonic jet airplane

modified version of an airplane whose type design was not certificated under this part,

and

MTOM greater than 5,700 kg,

and

an application for the modification in type design is submitted on or after January 1, 2023,

 and

first certificate of airworthiness is issued for an airplane built with the modified type design.

  1. propeller-driven airplane

 modified version of an airplane whose type design was not certificated under this part,

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 a MTOM greater than 8,618 kg, (

and

an application for modification in type design is submitted on or after January 1, 2023,

and

the first certificate of airworthiness is issued for an airplane built with the modified type design.

  1.  subsonic jet airplane

 MTOM greater than 5,700 kg,

and

Its first certificate of airworthiness issued on or after January 1, 2028.

  1.  propeller-driven airplane

 MTOM greater than 8,618 kg,

and

 Its first certificate of airworthiness issued on or after January 1, 2028.

 

After sifting through all these variable, the most essential point is that the FEM test does not apply to any aircraft flying today, unless substantially modified. Those, who remember the Stage I, Stage II, Stage III and Stage IV compliance history, will recognize the policy wisdom of this regulation to be applied prospectively, not retroactively!!! Though Congress mandated the creation of these noise standards, several Members intervened asking the FAA to “exempt” an airline, usually a constituent, from meeting the deadline. The “public interest” argument was that grounding the noisy aircraft will cause jobs to be lost. Not a model of good government.

 

Stage I,II,III,IV history

 


 

Proposed Part 38 Rule Would Add New Fuel Efficiency Metric to Federal Aviation Regulations

By Woodrow Bellamy III | June 22, 2022
Send Feedback |  @WBellamyIIIAC
airplane emissions,
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),
 fuel efficiency metric (FEM),
Part 38

1st FEM aircraft to be tested

The FAA names Boeing’s 777X, pictured here at the 2021 Dubai Air Show, as one of the aircraft that would be subject to a new fuel efficiency metric regulation, according to a new proposed rulemaking that the agency released last week. (Photo, courtesy of Boeing)

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on June 15 published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) that would introduceFederal Register FEM NPRM a new Part 38 fuel efficiency metric (FEM) to the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR)—the rules that the agency uses to govern U.S.-based civilian aviation activities.

FAA’s proposed Part 38 fuel efficiency regulation is the result of airplane emissions rules adopted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) last year that are aligned with the International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) 2017 update to its carbon dioxide emission standards. According to the 16-page NPRM published by the FAA this week, Part 38 is applicable to new subsonic jet aircraft and large turboprop and propeller aircraft that are not yet certified, and for new airplanes manufactured after January 1, 2028.

Furthermore, Part 38 will prescribe the new FEM metric to aircraft *with 20 seats or more, and a *maximum takeoff mass (MTOM) greater than 5,700 kilograms (12,500 pounds). Under the NPRM as proposed, Part 38 uses a metric that equates fuel efficiency and consumption with reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) based on the unique specific air range (SAR) and reference geometric factor (RGF) characteristics of individual airplane models.

 

FEM metricThe Fuel Efficiency Metric equation as proposed in the NPRM

SAR, according to the FAA, is determined by the distance an airplane can travel per unit of fuel consumed by measuring fuel efficiency of airplanes at every point that occurs within a given trajectory while in stable cruise flight conditions. An aircraft’s fuselage size and load carrying capacity determine its RGF, and the new Part 38 regulation uses an RGF parameter that is represented by the “floor area of pressurized space in an airplane, and is flexible enough to account for single or multi-deck airplanes,” according to the NPRM.

Dividing SAR by RGF results in a universal equation to denote the fuel efficiency of any airplane regardless of size. This is the FEM,” the FAA writes in the proposed rulemaking.

A key aspect of the NPRM for avionics manufacturers relates to the proposed regulation of an aircraft’s FEM metric when a modification occurs to the aircraft that impacts the criteria originally used for it to meet the FEM during its type certification process.

To exemplify the applicability requirements of the new FEM metric for changes to aircraft systems and components, the FAA included, in the draft of the proposed rulemaking, an example of a satellite antenna modification. According to the example provided, adding a satellite antenna to the top of a fuselage “may adversely affect the airplane’s FEM value by increasing drag.” The example references a 60,000 kg MTOM modified airplane.

“If this 60,000 kg MTOM modified airplane shows an increase of FEM value of more than 0.75% (as calculated, under § 38.19(a)(2)), the applicant would need to demonstrate compliance with the fuel efficiency limit that was established for the prior version of the airplane,” the NPRM says.

FEM table

An explanation of the new Part 38 rule’s applicability requirements provided by the FAA in the new NPRM

In the announcement proposing the new Part 38 rule, the FAA clarifies that the FEM metric will not be applicable to aircraft that are already in service. The agency also provided some specific examples of aircraft that the rule could apply to, including the “upcoming Boeing 777-X and future versions of the 787 Dreamliner; the Airbus A330-neo; business jets such as the Cessna Citation; and civil turboprop airplanes such as the ATR 72 and the Viking Limited Q400.”

 

 

FEM NO FEM

 



 

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